Tuesday, October 9, 2018

A Guide to Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging, also known as impression die forging, uses two or more dies that contain a precut
profile of the desired product. Heated metal, such as steel, bronze, titanium, or aluminum, is poured
into the bottom die. As the dies come together, pressure and impact forces form the metal to fit the
Capabilities of Closed Die Forging
A major advantage of closed die forging is its preciseness. Parts weighing anywhere from several
ounces to 60,000 pounds can be produced in a virtually limitless variety of 3-D shapes. Closed die
forging is equally effective for simple spheres and blocks, for extremely intricate components with high
vertical projections and thin webs, and for parts that include detailed design elements such as bent or
curved flanges and protrusions.
Metals and Alloys
Virtually all metals and alloys that are used in engineering can be used in closed die forging. Some
materials that are particularly sensitive to temperature or strain rate, such as refractory alloys and
nickel-based super-alloys, may require special equipment for closed die forging.
Closed Die Forging Process Operations
The simplest version of closed die forging brings two dies together to cause plastic deformation in the
heated metal until its sides touch the side walls of the dies. A small amount of the metal then starts to
flow outside the die, forming flash. The rapidly cooling flash adds deformation resistance, building up
pressure inside the dies to boost material flow into all areas of the dies.
Closed Die Upsetting
Closed die forging can be performed on horizontal forging machines known as upsetters. In this case,
“grip dies” consist of one stationary die and one moving die that contain the desired impression and
can be closed to hold the material in position for forging. A ram-operated “heading tool” acts as a
hammer or press, forcing metal into all sections of the grip dies.
Closed die forging can produce products with tighter tolerances and higher precision than other
methods such as open die forging. The finished products also have better strength and tightness, as
well as an improved surface finish. Like anything else, though, closed die forging is not always the
right choice. It can be expensive for small runs due to the need to create customized profiles for each
piece. In addition, fatigue resistance is not as high for closed die forged items as for open die forged
At Atlas Bronze, we carefully select the forging or casting process that is right for each item. Using the
best process lets us ultimately produce the best results.
Ready to Start?
Atlas Bronze is a leading U.S. distributor of bronze, copper, brass, iron, and more. Contact us today at
1-800-478-0887 to place an order or learn about our custom products.

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