Monday, May 22, 2017

Casting Options: Methods of Manufacture

When you begin a project, there may be a perfect vision in your head, but to get it to the final stages there are a lot of decisions that need to be made to achieve the highest quality of product.

Over the years Atlas Bronze has acquired the keen knowledge of how your material is made, the lead time for the material and the ultimate cost will depend on the some of the following factors:

  • Desired Alloy
  • Specification (if noted)
  • Size Range
  • Quantity
  • Lead time needed
Each alloy group has unique methods for how the material is made or cast and we take into account for all the factors in determining the best method to offer a customer.  This is possible because we have over 100+ years of combined experience in our Sales Group. 

The best way to help you determine the best fit for your needs would be to CONTACT US by either email or call 1-800-478-0887.
Some of the most common methods of casting for Bronze Alloys are as follows:
Sand Casting

Sand casting is probably the oldest method in practice. In this process the mold is prepared using sand or silica and the molten liquid metal is poured into it. The mold is made of two parts, the cope and the drag. A wooden pattern is placed between these two parts, called the mold cavity. The liquid metal enters here and casts itself. The shape of the mold cavity is similar to the final object after the refining

Centrifugal Casting

The Centrifugal casting process uses a mold which is fixed to a motor on an axis to rotate it at high speeds. The speed of rotation depends on the metal to be cast and the shape required. This method is mainly used for the production of cylindrical components like pipes. As the motor rotates, the metal gets pushed towards the outer walls of the cast and solidifies. The centrifugal process is unsuitable for making linear-shaped and dense 


Continuous Casting

Continuous casting, as the name implies, converts molten metal into a continuous moving ingot shape with a rectangular or round cross section. Time, energy, and labor are saved. Generally, a water-cooled mold is employed, receiving molten metal in one end and delivering a continuous solidified product out the other. The molds can be vibrating or moving, slow or fast.

          Atlas offers high quality Sand Casting, Centrifugal Casting, and Continuous Cast products at competitive prices and great lead times.  Your alloy, specification or application might indicate the part needs to be made as any one of the listed methods.   Speak to one of our Sales Representatives to determine if your application should be made as a Continuous, Centrifugal or Sand Casting product.

For more information or to see what else we could do to help, please visit our website at

Friday, May 12, 2017

Ground Plate: The Ultimate Time & Money Saver!

 Ground Plate is Atlas Bronze's specialty product.  This material is a cost saver and time saver.  Since the material is stocked in a ground condition +/- .002 on the thickness (we aim for +/- .000 so if you need a closer tolerance we will mic material upon request).

Our bronze flat stock is machined from continuous cast, fine grain plate. Our bars are supplied ground top & bottom.  

No milling or grinding is necessary on the top or on the bottom. It's already done for you!!  No need to block it in, taping it down or tow clamp it anymore! 

Standard stocked ground plates are available in C95400 Aluminum Bronze & C93200 Bearing Bronze from ¼ to 1” x 12” wide x 144” cut to your size.  We can also grind any plate Alloy you like.  Just call or email us with your requirements.

Our Bronze Ground Plate was developed to save you time and money and here is a list of reasons why you will love it!

  • Time Saver
  • Tight Tolerance
  • Minimal Machining for customers
  • Fewer Setups + lower costs
  • Chemical Certs for trace-ability
  • Standard Sizes in Stock
  • Can ship the same day!

You can see an example of what grinding a large plate might look like below...

Call us, email us or visit us on our Online Store to purchase yours TODAY!

1-800-478-0887 • •

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

The Wrought Alloys

Here at Atlas we offer a broad variety of Wrought Alloys. Wrought Alloys under the Bronze products tab on our website are generally available in sheet/ plate, rods, tubes or bar stock. We have a great inventory selection of products that can be pulled right from our shelves.

They are typically produced by rolling and extrusion mills or by a Forging Mill. In either case the material starts out as a particular shape (i.e. Round or Square block or billet) and is then cast into the desired form by either "Extruding or Pushing" the material or by "Hammering or Forging" the material down into shape. Additionally some of our material is available in an "As cast and cold drawn condition". This process involves casting the rod and then repeatedly cold drawing it to it's final dimension and annealing it during the process when necessary.  A more detailed explanation for each can be found below...

Hot Extrusion

In extrusion, a bar or metal is forced from an enclosed cavity via a die orifice by a compressive force applied by a ram. Since there are no tensile forces, high deformations are possible without the risk of fracture of the extruded material.
The extruded article has the desired, reduced cross-sectional area, and also has a good surface finish so that further machining is not needed. Extrusion products include rods and tubes with varying degrees of complexity in cross-section.

The Extrusion process allows for solids, tubes and profiles to be made. Contact one of our Sales Representatives and find out if your application, spec and material require an Extruded product.



There are 2 main types of Forging methods. Closed Die Forgings and Open Die Forgings.

In Closed Die Forgings a single piece of metal, normally hot, is deformed mechanically by the application of successive blows or by continuous squeezing. A force is brought to bear on a metal slug or preform placed between two (or more) die halves. The metal flows plastically into the cavity formed by the die and hence changes in shape to its finished shape.

In Open Die Forgings the metal is between flat dies with no pre-cut profiles. The dies do not confine the metal laterally during forging. Deformation is achieved through movement of the workpiece relative to the dies.

Cold Drawn

Drawing is the pulling of a metal piece through a die by means of a tensile force applied to the exit side. A reduction in cross-sectional area results, with a corresponding increase in length. A complete drawing apparatus may include up to twelve dies in a series sequence, each with a hole a little smaller than the preceding one.

Cold Drawing is where one casts a Rod (solid shape) or profile first and then after a careful pre-treatment procedure and de-scaling of the bar they are drawn through a forming die. This operation is typically repeated several times.
Metals can be formed to much closer dimensions by drawing than by rolling. Drawn products include wires, rods and tubing products. Seamless tubing can be produced by cold drawing when thin walls and very accurate finishes are required. This process tightens the cross-sectional tolerances, leading to improved dimensional accuracy and surface quality.
Cold drawn material offer extensive advantages, among other things:
  • Smooth and scale-free surface
  • Sharp edges
  • Uninterrupted grain orientation
  • Increased tensile strength and yield point

Atlas Bronze offers a number of alloys Cast & Drawn. Contact one of our Sales Representatives and find out if your application, spec and material require a Cast & Drawn product.

Hot Rolling

Rolling is the most widely used deformation process. It consists of passing metal between two rollers, which exert compressive stresses, reducing the metal thickness. Where simple shapes are to be made in large quantity, rolling is the most economical process. Rolled products include sheets, structural shapes and rails as well as intermediate shapes for wire drawing or forging. Circular shapes, ‘I’ beams and railway tracks are manufactured using grooved rolls.

Initial breakdown of an ingot or a continuously cast slab is achieved by hot rolling. Mechanical strength is improved and porosity is reduced. The worked metal tends to oxidize leading to scaling which results in a poor surface finish and loss of precise dimensions. A hot rolled product is often pickled to remove scale, and further rolled cold to ensure a good surface finish and optimize the mechanical properties for a given application.

Atlas Bronze offers a number of alloys Hot Rolled. Contact one of our Sales Representatives and find out if your application, spec and material require a Hot Rolled product.


Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Bearing Design Guide: Chapters Eight through Eleven: REVISITED - Graphite Plugged and Grooved Bearings

Bearing Design Guide: Chapters Eight through Eleven:  REVISITED
Graphite Plugged & Grooved Bearings

Bearing Design Guide: Chapter Eight: Grooves for Grease and Graphite Filled Bearings

         The groove width (W) for grease lubricated bearings should be increased by 1/32" of that of oil grooves with depth (D) remaining the same or slightly deeper by 1/64".
          The wider grooves permit the shaft a longer contact period with the less mobile grease supply and permit a greater surface coverage of graphite filled grooves.

The suggested groove width (W) and depth (D) as shown below:

          Bearing ID           Groove Width              (W)       Groove Depth            (D)
             0.5                         3/32                     0.094           3/64                    0.046
             1                            5/32                     0.156           5/64                    0.078
             2                            3/16                     0.188           3/32                    0.094
             3                            1/4                       0.25             1/8                      0.125
             4                            9/32                     0.281           9/64                    0.14
             5                            5/16                     0.312           5/32                    0.156
             6                           13/32                    0.406           13/64                  0.205
             7                           15/32                    0.469           15/64                  0.234
             8                           17/32                    0.531           17/64                  0.265
             9                           19/32                    0.593           19/64                  0.296
            10                          21/32                    0.656           21/64                  0.328
            11                          23/32                    0.719           23/64                  0.36
            12-20                     25/32                    0.781           25/64                  0.39
         Since these grooves are not as critical as oil grooves, they can be toleranced looser to plus-or-minus 1/64 to plus-or-minus 1/32.

          In grease lubricated bearings where exposed to contaminants such as dirt, ash or other debris, it is advisable to provide an annular or circular groove near the end of the bearing within 1/8" to 1/411 to create a dam effect. Such an effect will act as a reasonable seal, preventing contaminants from entering the bearing surface.

Bearing Design Guide: Chapter Nine: Graphited and Solid Lubricated Bearings

          Solid lubricated bearings such as graphite or molybdenum disulfides are used in severe environmental situations where normal fluid or grease lubricants cannot be used because of abnormal temperatures which would tend to carbonize or freeze the lubricant to brittle solids.
         They find usage constantly in chemically-reactive environments, in nuclear radiation and vacuum environments and where normal lubricants cannot be tolerated. They also are used where there is limited access to resupplying the lubricant or where it can be neglected.
        These solid lubricants can be used in form of colloidal powders in suspension of a grease carrier or held and bonded by various binders.
        Graphite itself, although one of the most popular solid lubricants, requires some absorbable gases, moisture or hydrocarbon vapors to develop low-shear strength.
         The gases and water vapor in the normal atmosphere are usually sufficient to ensure an adequate supply of absorbable medium but a brief immersion in a heated oil eliminates chance.
          Graphite in excellent through temperatures ranges through 1000 degrees F but are generally not
satisfactory in high altitudes nor in a vacuum conditions since desorption occurs.
          Molybdenum disulfide is an excellent solid lubricant below 750 degrees For in a vacuum since it does not require presence of adsorbable vapors. However, above 750 degrees Fin the presence of air or oxygen, it deteriorates and becomes an abrasive. It is also more expensive than graphite so it has limited usage.

          As with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and the other solid lubricants require a binder to make it adhere to the bearing surface. There are various binders available that can be formulated.

         The thermoplastic resins such as cellulesic or acrylic resins are easily sprayed, fast drying, requiring no baking but are limited to 150 degrees F.

         The thermosetting phenolics have a service temperature of 400 degrees F with good adherence.

         The epoxy resins adhere well and are safer than phenolics being stable through 600 degrees F but requiring heat-curing.
         Some inorganic binders such as sodium silicate would exceed the 750 degrees F and would be suitable for graphite but limited to a lower temperature for molybdenum disulfide.

         For an economical solid lubricant containing bearings, the standard available sintered powdered metal bearing with 18% porosity offers an excellent surface for retaining graphite or molybdenum disulfide formulation that would require a burnish operation of the lubricant into the surface.

Molybdenum Disulfide-Natural State

Molybdenum Disulfide Powder
Molybdenum Disulfide Grease

Bearing Design Guide: Chapter Ten: Graphited Wall Thickness Calculation
Graphite Plugged Bearing

            Since the solid lubricant must be held in form of grooved configurations, plugs or sticks in a series of drilled holes, they require a substantial depth to be retained properly.

          The minimum wall thickness of groove-filled solid lubricated bearings can follow the width (Y'/) and depth (D) described in Chapter VIII. Plug lubricated bearings with a .5 diameter should be held to 3/16" minimum wall thickness and then increased 1/32" for each nominal half-size above. That is, for a 1" ID bearing, a wall thickness of 7/32" should be considered for plug graphited bearings.
Graphite Plugs

                     A general rule of thumb: wall thickness= .08D + 1/8'' (where Dis the bearing ID.)

          The overall length on solid lubricated sleeve bearings can range in various lengths depending on the load, speed, and type of the application. The normal recommended LID ratio is 1. 5. This is to minimize possible shaft deflection and to offer greater stability and surface area. The maximum LID ratio recommended should rarely exceed a ratio of 3 since misalignment edge-loading and frictional heat can be appreciably increased.

The accepted standard solid lubricant coverage should average 30 to 3 5% of the surface area. However, the calculation of plug size and lubricant coverage is shown below. The plug diameter and drill size should be no larger than the wall thickness but no less than half.
Graphite Sticks

                                   Percentage of Graphite or Solid Lube Coverage

Drill Size        10%        15%       20%       25%         30%        35%        40%        45%        50%         3/16              8.95        13.43     17.9        22.38        26.85       31.33       36.81        40.28       44.5  
    1/4                5.03          7.54     10.05      12.57        15.08       17.6         20.11        22.62       25
    5/16              3.22          4.83       6.44        8.05          9.66       11.27       12.88        14.49      16.1
    3/8                2.23          3.35       4.47        5.59          6.7         7.82         8.94          10.06      11.1     
    7/16              1.64          2.46       3.28        4.1            4.92       5.75         6.57          7.39         8.2
    1/2                1.26          1.89       2.51        3.14          3.77       4.4           5.03          5.66         6.28

1. Choose the appropriate drill or plug size.
2. Locate the desired solid lubricant coverage
     Use factor number opposite drill or plug size
3. Multiply bushing ID x bushing length.
    Multiply factor number to obtain the number of holes or plugs.
Example: 2" ID x 2 112 OD x 2" length
1. 1/4 plug diameter
2. 35% coverage from chart 17.6
3. 2 x 2" length x 17.6 = 70 drilled holes or plugs.


                 Bearing Design Guide: Chapter Ten: Graphited Wall Thickness Calculation

           The running clearances for solid lubricated bearings must be substantially greater than in oil and grease lubricated bearings because the frictional heat generated is not dissipated.
          An allowance of .002 minimum per inch of diameter should be considered. Further, since solid lubricated bearings are not generally machined or bored after assembly 11close in11 of the ID must be allowed for. This allowance must be increased further if the bearing is to be used in abnormal temperature service to allow for expansion or contraction of the shaft.
          For more specific clearance allowances, use the attached calculation sheet either for normal temperatures or for abnormal temperature service. (Reference Chapter 6.)
Surfaces Finishes: Solid lubricated sleeve bearings do not require the high degree of surface finishes of oil lubricated bearings. The slightly rougher bearing ID finish is desirable to permit the solid lubricant to coat its surface. Therefore, a bearing surface ID finish of 63 RMS to 125 RMS should be satisfactory. The shaft finish, however, should be ground or polished smooth to approximately 32 RMS.

          Upon installation of the solid lubricated bearing, there will be instant wear until the shaft and bearing become coated with the solid lubricant. It would be advisable to submerge the graphited bearing in an oil bath of slightly heated oil to penetrate the plugs or filled graphite grooves to enhance its initial "running in" or "bedding in" to reduce this initial wear to an acceptable minimum.
          Note that the drilled and plugged holes do reduce the strength and structure of the bearing while adding to the cost.
          Many times it would be more economical to utilize filled groove configurations since they do not weaken the bearing to any noticeable degree.

         Although a solid lubricant can be retained in a serrated ID which can be broached for economy, tests have shown that such a structure weakens the lands in the bearing ID and limits the load and speed capabilities to less than 50 PSI and 30 fms.

General Information: Some commercially available solid lubricants containing compounds of graphite and molybdenum disulphide are sold by Lubriplate and Emhart Companies as Never-Seize and Dri-Slide.

         The coefficient of friction for solid lubricated bearings are appreciably higher than those for oil and grease ranging from .15 to .35 initially then reduced to a lower acceptable level.

Ok...I'm done.  I know that was a lot of information all at once, but I thought they should go together.  I have watched the plugging process a few times here in our warehouse and I gotta say it was pretty cool.  From sticking them in, to watching them get ground down to become one with the bearing or wear plate is a neat thing to watch.

I hope you find this as interesting as I do, that's it for now.  Until next time my metal loving friends...

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

SAE 841 - Bar Stock vs Bearings

Day in and day out we have customers who contact us for SAE 841, Sintered Bronze material.  The call will start off by the customer giving an order for pieces of 841 Bar Stock or Solid Bar material.

Then somewhere in the conversation the customer will say that they need a Signed C of C per ASTM B438 and then the dreaded statement comes....."I will be making Bushings".  This is where we have to stop the customer and go into the usual spiel about the ASTM B438 specification.  Now before I continue, here is our disclaimer**:  We are not expertsOur sales team has just been burned enough times that it has forced us to learn and understand this crazy spec. 

 The sales person then proceeds to explain to the customer that the ASTM B438 specification is for Bronze-Base Materials used in Powdered Metal Bearings.  The key word being -- Bearings.  This covers Bearings / Bushings or Thrust Washers. 

841 Facts

Here is the deal.  Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing them into a desired shape (compacting), and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material (sintering). The powder metallurgy process generally consists of five steps: 

(1) Blending - The part-specific powder is created by mixing the correct amounts of metals and lubricants to produce the physical and mechanical properties of the finished product.

(2) Molding - the powder is compacted into the desired shape using compressive forces. The part shape is created by compressing the correct blend of materials inside of the part-specific tools.

(3) Sintering - Through the application of heat, sintering permanently bonds the individual metal particles that have been compacted together through the molding stage.  This process is instrumental in providing the majority of the mechanical properties of the final product.

(4) Sizing - Sizing, sometimes referred to as "coining," is the final pressing of the fully sintered part.

(5) Oil Impregnation - Under vacuum, customer-specific oil products are impregnated into the remaining porosity of the completed part.

The Problem

Notice in Step #3 that the Sintering process is the instrumental phase in providing the majority of the mechanical properties of the final product.  The ASTM B438 (05, 08 & 13) specification covering Sintered products applies to Bearing/Bushings/Thrust Washers.  These shapes have specific radial crushing strengths (minimum and maximum's), Impregnation Efficiencies and Impregnation Density's that are unique to the shapes dimensions and sizing.  

So why does that matter to the guy buying Solid Bar Stock and machining it into a Bushing? Consider this, let's say that I buy a piece of 841 Bar Stock, 1" ID x 3" OD x 6-1/2" long.  This piece of bar stock has a specific radial crushing strength, impregnation efficiency & density.  Now when you take that piece of bar stock back to the shop and machine it down to say 1-1/4" OD x 2-1/8" OD, you have now changed the radial crushing strength, impregnation efficiency & density.  Once the customer makes that "structural" change we, Atlas Bronze, can no longer say that that material is certified to the ASTM B438 specification.  It is believed that when you "ream" or "bore out" the ID of a piece of 841 Bar Stock you close the pores and alter the impregnation of that piece of bar.  At that point, Atlas can no longer say that the Signed C of C that lists specific physical & mechanical properties apply.  


Buy what you need.  If you need a Bushing, order a Bushing.  If you need a Flanged Bushing, get a Flanged Bushing.  Yes, you might pay a little more if the parts are not standard sizes...but in the long run, you know that the Physical & Mechanical Properties as outlined in the ASTM B438 spec will be in conformance to what you purchased. And most importantly read the specifications, ASTM B438-05,  ASTM B438-08 & ASTM B438-13.

 If you need a copy of one or all of these specs you can download them by visiting: and type in ASTM B438 in the search bar.  

**DISCLAIMER:  While Maranatha Now, Inc. dba Atlas Bronze strives to make the content on this blog as informational and educational as possible,  Maranatha Now, Inc. dba Atlas Bronze makes no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of this blog, and expressly disclaims liability for errors and omissions in the contents of this site.

Thursday, March 9, 2017

March Plate Madness!

Hello everybody!
It's that time of year again...March Plate Madness! While one doesn't typically associate Bronze Plate with the same type of hysteria that Basketball creates, for some of us, it's pretty exciting!  Of course, if Bronze was still made of Copper & Arsenic then we might find some customers truly experiencing madness. But luckily humans wised up and replaced that Arsenic with Tin!  

     So why is Plate so neat?  In my personal opinion, I think that of all the Bronze Shapes (i.e. Cored Bar or Solid Bar) plate is the most versatile in both Method of Manufacture & Secondary Processes.  Like I said, this is just my personal opinion so if I have offended anyone, my apologies.

    The plate that I usually come in contact with is made from one of the following methods of manufacture: Continuous Casting, Sand Casting, Hot Rolled, Cold Rolled and/or Forged.  And check this out... the method of manufacture depends on the Alloy, Material Specification, size range needed, quantity and lead time.  Crazy, right?!
Please join me as I jump into the wonderful world of Plate and explore the amazing Secondary Processes that can be done with it. In this weeks post I will detail the following list of topics.

3 "D" Saw cutting
Ground Plate = less time = less $ lost
The Unique Diamondized Naval Brass Plate
Graphite Plugging
Water Jet Cutting
Decorative Purposes

I hope you will find this as fascinating as I do and join me in the love for Bronze Plate!

3 “D” Saw Cutting
Sure a lot of companies can saw cut and yes the cutting itself is neat to watch.  But it just so happens that Atlas Bronze is one of the only suppliers that can Saw Cut a Big Block of bronze plate on all (3) sides:  thickness, width and length.  Where in the past, a customer would have to Sand Cast a piece to a non-standard thickness or have several hundred (or even thousand) pounds run in a mill, depending on the alloy -- we eliminate that need by offering this specialty cutting.

For example:  Take C93200 Plate -

What if you needed a 1.125" thick x 2" wide x 40" long BUT the mill only has standard sizes that they can offer.  They would offer you the next available size up -- 1.25" thick x 2" wide.......

Yes this can work but it's a lot extra material left over from milling that plate down.  A lot of extra material = more $ spent on the bar(s) + all that extra time invested in the milling process. 

This is where Atlas Bronze comes into play!

We take one of our Big Blocks-- in C93200 we have (2) different sizes to choose from:  4" thick x 12" wide (or) 6" thick x 8" wide.  We take the block and then cut it on ALL (3) sides to get the thickness that the customer needs.

So the customer winds up with the desired dimensions of:  1.125" thick x 2" wide x 40" long.

Ground Plate = less time = less $ lost
This is where we take C93200 (Bearing Bronze Plate) or C95400 (Aluminum Bronze Plate) and grind it top & bottom to a +/-.002 on the thickness.  Why does this matter?  Because it reduces the amount of time one needs to mill or grind a piece down -- less time to machine = less money wasted.  Grinding Plate down is just a plain smart secondary process for the machine shop and end user alike. 
Although I only mention C93200 & C95400, we can actually surface grind any of our Plate alloys that are in stock.

The Unique Diamonized Naval Brass Plate
As far as I know there is only (1) machine in the world that can produce the "Diamonized Finish" This is one of the "prettiest" alloys we stock. It is stunning to look at and it truly does look like you are staring into a mirror.  That aside, its functionality is impressive as well.  It has excellent wear properties, corrosion resistance and softness.  It has a gauge tolerance of +0.000, -0.004 and much more!

Graphite Plugging
This secondary process, which is also considered Self Lubrication, is great when standard lubrication is impractical, including heavy load, high temperature applications. You do wind up spending a bit more money by having the plates plugged but now you have permanent lubrication built into the part.  Thus eliminating the need to stop the machine and re-apply lubrication. 

Less Time = More Money!

Water jet Cutting
I love the idea that you can take a rectangle sheet and make them circles.  Okay this is hokey but it kind of reminds me of crazy Spirograph toy that I used to play with as a kid (ahh…who am I kidding, I still love to play with them!).  So why is Water jet cutting a great secondary process, take a look:

Water jet cutting has been around since the early seventies but was of little value to engineers as then it was only capable of cutting thin gasket and foam materials. Abrasive jets extended the concept about 10 years later.

Both technologies use the principle of pressurizing water to extremely high pressures, and allowing the water to escape through a very small opening (typically called the "orifice" or "jewel"). Water jets use the beam of water exiting the orifice (or jewel) to cut soft materials like confectionery and foam etc. but are not effective for cutting harder materials.  Abrasive jets use that same beam of water to accelerate abrasive particles to speeds fast enough to cut through much harder materials.

We frequently get requests for circles in Brass Plates calling for thicknesses that otherwise couldn’t be achieved in any other fashion, except to water jet.  

Decorative Purposes
Over the past few years we have supplied plate (all different alloys) that would wind up being included in some of the neatest places. An example of this would be we supplied plate that would be polished, water jet cut and then installed at the Main Entrance at Macy's Herald Square. (see below)

© 2017 is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

We have supplied brass sheets that would be the decorative sheets to escalators and elevators, window and building facades, (such as the Novartis Building in New York) and much more.

Thanks for taking the time to learn a little bit with me.  Until next time, my metal loving friends...

DISCLAIMER:  While Maranatha Now, Inc. dba Atlas Bronze strives to make the content on this blog as informational and educational as possible,  Maranatha Now, Inc. dba Atlas Bronze makes no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of this blog, and expressly disclaims liability for errors and omissions in the contents of this site.